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Scheme description / Schemenbeschreibung

Position of trainProtection in the XML-Tree / Position von trainProtection im XML-Baum

Multiplicity / Anzahl


Semantics / Bedeutung

The element <trainProtection> defines the train protection system that is used at all tracks where the current <infraAttributes> are used per reference.

Attributes of trainProtection / Attribute von trainProtection

  • medium: This specifies the medium used for communication between the train and linside equipment.
    Dies gibt den Übertragungsweg für die Informationen von der Strecke zum Fahrzeug an.
    Possible values are:
  • mechanical "mechanisch", z.B. Fahrsperren der Berliner S-Bahn As a means to reduce the consequence of a Signal Passed At Danger and to ensure that a train sufficiently comes to rest within an overlap, trainstops are implemented as mechanical devices colocated next to an end of authority that will activate a trip cock arm on a train causing an emergency brake intervention [RISSB AS 7711 Signalling Principles – Public Comment Draft].
  • electric "elektrisch", z.B. Crocodile in Frankreich, Belgien und Luxemburg contains a pair of magnets, the first permanent, the second an electromagnet linked to the signal to provide an indication of the aspect. The ramp is placed between the rails so that a detector on the train can receive the indication data [Railway Technical. Karabük Üniversitesi Demir Çelik Kampüsü].
  • inductive "induktiv", z.B. Indusi der Deutschen Reichsbahn, PZB der Deutschen Bahn A type of train protection system that utilizes permanent magnets installed in the track. One example is the German Indusi (germ. Induktive Signalsicherung) that works on the same way by using tuned circuits trackside and on board. That close coupling between both circuits takes place only at discrete points, so the information is spot transmitted. They provide for an attentiveness check at the signals which can show „Caution“, trainstop functions and more or less complex supervision functions, but without calculating a dynamic speed profile [Tomislav Josip Mlinarić The impact of Indusi technology on disruption of interoperability in European rail traffic].
  • magnetic "magnetisch", z.B. Integra-Signum der Schweizerischen Bundesbahn trackside magnets for automatic train protection [Peri Smith Impact of European Railway Traffic Management System on Human Performance in Railway Operations European Findings].
  • optical "optisch" fibre optic cables, which are already installed in cable troughs alongside railway tracks, to monitor railway infrastructure conditions. The sensing technique, known as distributed acoustic/vibration sensing (DAS/DVS), relies on the effect of Rayleigh scattering and transforms the optical fibre into an array of “virtual microphones” in the thousands. This sensing method has the ability to be used over long distances and thus provide information about the events taking place in the proximity of the monitored asset in real-time [Vidovic and Marschnig. Optical Fibres for Condition Monitoring of Railway Infrastructure—Encouraging Data Source or Errant Effort?].
  • radio "Funk", z.B. Funk-Fahr-Betrieb uses GSM digital radio with continuous connectivity [Oleh Shchuryk. Finished Vehicle Logistics by Rail in Europe. the Association of European Vehicle Logistics]. In radio operation, the route and trains are secured and the elements of the route are controlled by radio. The special feature is that the route elements are controlled from the vehicle instead of from the operations center. [ Matthias Grimm Anforderungen an eine sicherheitsrelevante Ortung im Schienenverkehr ].
  • rail "Schiene", z.B. Abgriff der in die Fahrschienen aufmodulierten Information, Führerstandssignalisierung der ehemaligen SZD-Bahnen It is Continuous Automatic Train Signalling (АЛСН - автоматическая локомотивная сигнализация непрерывного действия) used widely on the main lines of the ex-Soviet states. It uses modulated pulses inducted into rails similar to the Italian RS4 Codici and American Pulse Code Cab Signaling. On high-speed lines the variant ALS-EN (АЛС-ЕН) is used which takes advantage of a double phase difference modulation carrier frequency. Use of several distinct pulse train patterns of alternating current flowing through a track circuit to convey an aspect of the next signal. The circuit comprises the feedpoint at the next signal, one running rail, first locomotive axle, another running rail and back to the signal feedpoint. The resulting electromagnetic field is picked up by receiver coils located just front of the first axle of the locomotive. The signal is then amplified, filtered and evaluated [Oleh Shchuryk. Finished Vehicle Logistics by Rail in Europe. the Association of European Vehicle Logistics].
  • cable "Kabel" With the line control continuous monitoring of the speed is possible. The vehicle data is transmitted from the vehicle device to the Linienzugbeeinflussung headquarters, where the target speed is determined, which in turn is then transmitted to the on-board unit via the line cable installed in the track. The vehicle is addressed via its position. The on-board device determines the driving data (e.g. actual, target, target speed, target distance), which is displayed in the driver's cab [ Matthias Grimm Anforderungen an eine sicherheitsrelevante Ortung im Schienenverkehr ].
  • none It is used if there is no train protection.
  • monitoring: This specifies the way the train supervision works.
    Dies gibt die Art und Weise der Informationsübertragung von der Strecke zum Fahrzeug an.
    Possible values are:
  • intermittent "punktförmig", z.B. PZB der Deutschen Bahn the data is transmitted to the train at discrete points along the track. Data transmission points are provided at signals and sometimes at selected intermediate locations between signals [Jörn Pachl Railway Signalling Principles]
  • continuous "linenförmig", z.B. LZB oder CIR-ELKE der Deutschen Bahn transmit control data continuously from track to train. This enables the ATP system not only to protect but also to guide the train [Jörn Pachl Railway Signalling Principles].
  • none It is used if there is no train protection.

Syntactic Constraints / Syntaktische Beschränkungen

  • medium: tTrainProtectionMedium (xs:string); optional
  • monitoring: tTrainProtectionMonitoring (xs:string); default: none; optional
  • trainProtectionSystem: xs:string; optional

Best practice & Examples / Empfohlene Anwendung & Beispiele

Not yet described. / Noch nicht beschrieben.

Notes / Anmerkungen

Not yet described. / Noch nicht beschrieben.

Open issues / Offene Punkte/Pendenzen

Not yet described. / Noch nicht beschrieben.