Dev:UsingAny

From railML 2 Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Note.png This page is mirrored from page Dev:UsingAny in The railML® 3 wiki.

Using Any
 
This article explains how to use the xs:any-element, the xs:anyAttribute and the railML® specific type tOtherEnumerationValue. It is a subtopic of dev:Extending railML.

Birne.png Important: Before starting using any or anyAttribute please read carefully and understand the first section!

When using xs:any / anyAttribute and what to respect before starting?

New elements, respectively sub-trees (Use of xs:any)

There are multiple positions where the railML® schema provides the W3C xs:any element for optional extensions by own elements, respectively sub-trees. That's the case for all elements with the generic railML® attributes id, code, name, description... and at other certain positions in the XML tree forseen for extensibility.

<xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="strict" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />
  • namespace="##other" means that the railML® schemas force the extensions to be defined in an own new namespace that differs from the railML® one. See also Namespace handling
  • processContents="strict" means that the railML® schemas force all extensions to be defined by an XML Schema (*.xsd).
  • minOccurs="0" means that there may be no extensions at this certain position.
  • maxOccurs="unbounded" means that the railML® schemas allow an "unbounded" amount of extension elements at this certain position.

In case of general extensions, this feedback should be provided to the railML® community e.g. by announcing in the appropriate railML® forum (link to the railML® website) or at least by mail to the appropriate railML® coordinator (link to the railML® website).

Example for an extension XML Schema defining new elements without any railML® re-use

XML Schema with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema targetNamespace="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns:xs="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="1.0">

  <!-- Person to contact in case of any questions regarding the schema: Max Mustermann, phone: +12-345-67890, mail: max.mustermann@my-company.com -->

  <xs:element name="mySpecifics">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Our companies' extensions follow in this sub-tree</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:sequence>
        <xs:element name="contract" type="contractType" minOccurs="0">
	  <xs:annotation>
	    <xs:documentation>Each element may be enriched with contract details.</xs:documentation>
	  </xs:annotation>
	</xs:element>
	<xs:element name="personResponsible" type="xs:string">
	  <xs:annotation>
	    <xs:documentation>Each element should be defined with a person that is responsible for the content.</xs:documentation>
	  </xs:annotation>
	</xs:element>
      </xs:sequence>
      <xs:attribute name="version" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:complexType name="contractType">
    <xs:sequence>
      <xs:element name="number" type="xs:string">
        <xs:annotation>
	  <xs:documentation>In case the contract details are known, the contract number for this element should be defined.</xs:documentation>
	</xs:annotation>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element name="requirement" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded">
        <xs:annotation>
	  <xs:documentation>In case the contract details are known, the requirements numbers for this element should be defined.</xs:documentation>
	</xs:annotation>
      </xs:element>
    </xs:sequence>
  </xs:complexType>

</xs:schema>
  • This example does not re-use railML® elements, attributes, attribute groups, types, groups. It is fully based on XML Schema types. (lines 17, 23, 29, 34)
  • The version attribute in the root element marks the version of the extension schema and should be not confused with the railML® version. (line 2)
  • It is recommended to use the XML comments for non-content related documentation, e.g. contact information: <!-- ... --> (line 4)
  • It is recommended to use the XML Schema possibilities for documentation inside the extension schema: xs:annotation and xs:documentation (lines 7-9, 13-15, 18-20, 30-32, 35-37)
  • The elements mySpecifics and contract show how to define sub-trees: xs:complexType (lines 10-24, 27-40)
  • The elements personResponsible, number and requirement however define single elements without children. (lines 17, 29, 34)
  • The element contract may occur once or not at all at the certain position. (line 12)
  • The element personResponsible must occur once. (line 17)
  • In case the element contract is used the elements number and requirement have to be used, too. The element requirement may occur more than once. (lines 29, 34)
  • The attribute version has to be defined inside the element mySpecifics. (line 23)

The following XML instance document shows an example how to deploy these extensions within a railML® file.

XML Instance with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" 
        xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" 
        xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
        xsi:schemaLocation="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011 ../schema/railML.xsd https://www.my-company.com/my-department/ usingAnyElement.xsd" 
        version="2.1">
  <timetable id="tt1">
    <my:mySpecifics version="1.0">
      <my:contract>
        <my:number>1234-56/789</my:number>
	<my:requirement>123.456.78.9</my:requirement>
      </my:contract>
      <my:personResponsible>Max Mustermann</my:personResponsible>
    </my:mySpecifics>
    <categories>
      <category id="c1" code="IC" name="InterCity" description="Fast large city connection" trainUsage="passenger">
        <my:mySpecifics version="1.0">
          <my:personResponsible>Marie Mustermann</my:personResponsible>
        </my:mySpecifics>
      </category>
      <category id="c2" code="RE" name="RegionalExpress" description="Fast small city connection" trainUsage="passenger"/>
    </categories>
  </timetable>
</railml>
  • The element timetable shows the full usage of the extension elements and attributes. (lines 4-10)
  • The first category element shows the usage of all required extension elements and attributes. (lines 13-15)
  • The second category element shows the absence of the extension elements and attributes. (line 17)
  • The extensions are clearly distinguishable from the railML® core by defining the appropriate namespace: xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" (line 2), using the prefix my (lines 4-10, 13-15)

Generally, the prefix is a short abbreviation for the domain-specific extension up to three letters.

Extensions in railML® base elements (with id, code...) have to be inserted before the other railML® child elements. In all other cases do the extensions apply after the railML® child elements.

Example of an extension XML Schema defining new elements with some railML® re-use

XML Schema with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema targetNamespace="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns:rail="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" xmlns:xs="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="1.0">

  <!-- Person to contact in case of any questions regarding the schema: Max Mustermann, phone: +12-345-67890, mail: max.mustermann@my-company.com -->

  <xs:import namespace="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" schemaLocation="../schema/railML.xsd">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Copyright (c) railML.org; All Rights Reserved.</xs:documentation>
      <xs:documentation>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</xs:documentation>
      <xs:documentation>For further information see: https://www.railml.org/</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:import>

  <xs:element name="mySpecifics">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Our companies' extensions follow in this sub-tree</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
    <xs:complexType>
      <xs:sequence>
        <xs:element name="contract" type="contractType" minOccurs="0">
	  <xs:annotation>
	    <xs:documentation>Each element may be enriched with contract details.</xs:documentation>
	  </xs:annotation>
	</xs:element>
	<xs:element name="personResponsible" type="xs:string">
	  <xs:annotation>
	    <xs:documentation>Each element should be defined with a person that is responsible for the content.</xs:documentation>
	  </xs:annotation>
	</xs:element>
      </xs:sequence>
      <xs:attribute name="version" type="rail:tVersionNumber" use="required"/>
    </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>

  <xs:complexType name="contractType">
    <xs:complexContent>
      <xs:extension base="rail:tElementWithIDAndNameWithoutAny">
        <xs:annotation>
	  <xs:documentation>In case the contract details are known, the contract number for this element should be defined within the 'code' attribute.</xs:documentation>
	</xs:annotation>
        <xs:sequence>
	  <xs:element name="requirement" type="rail:tGenericName" maxOccurs="unbounded">
	    <xs:annotation>
	      <xs:documentation>In case the contract details are known, the requirements numbers for this element should be defined.</xs:documentation>
	    </xs:annotation>
	  </xs:element>
	</xs:sequence>
      </xs:extension>
    </xs:complexContent>
  </xs:complexType>

</xs:schema>
  • The railML® namespace has to be declared in any case where elements, attributes, types or groups are reused in the extension: xmlns:rail="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" (line 2)
  • The railML® namespace has further to be imported using the XML Schema rules: xs:import (lines 6-12)
  • The element requirement re-uses the railML® type tGenericName. (line 42)
  • The attribute version re-uses the railML® type tVersionNumber. (line 31)
  • The content of element contract re-uses the railML® base type tElementWithIDAndNameWithoutAny thats provides some generic attributes and elements. (lines 37-48)
  • This example has many in common with the previous one. See those comments, too.

The following XML instance document shows an example of how to deploy these extensions within a railML® file.

XML Instance with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" 
        xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" 
        xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
        xsi:schemaLocation="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011 ../schema/railML.xsd https://www.my-company.com/my-department/ usingAnyElementWithRailML.xsd" 
        version="2.1">
  <timetable id="tt1">
    <my:mySpecifics version="1.0">
      <my:contract id="ctr1" code="1234-56/789">
        <my:requirement>123.456.78.9</my:requirement>
      </my:contract>
      <my:personResponsible>Max Mustermann</my:personResponsible>
    </my:mySpecifics>
    <categories>
      <category id="c1" code="IC" name="InterCity" description="Fast large city connection" trainUsage="passenger">
        <my:mySpecifics version="1.0">
	  <my:personResponsible>Marie Mustermann</my:personResponsible>
	</my:mySpecifics>
      </category>
      <category id="c2" code="RE" name="RegionalExpress" description="Fast small city connection" trainUsage="passenger"/>
    </categories>
  </timetable>
</railml>
  • The extension element mySpecifics in the element timetable holds the changed contract element. It is based on a railML® type and therefore provides the "railML® attribute" code for usage instead of the self-defined number element. It further forces the id attribute to be defined. (lines 4-9)
  • This example has many in common with the previous one. See those comments, too.

New attributes (Use of xs:anyAttribute)

There are multiple positions where the railML schemas provide the W3C xs:anyAttribute for optional extension by own attributes. That's the case for all elements with the generic railML attributes id, code, name, description... and at other certain positions in the XML tree forseen for extensibility.

<xs:anyAttribute namespace="##other"/>
  • namespace="##other" means that the railML schemas force the extensions to be defined in an own new namespace that differs from the railML one. See also Namespace handling
  • processContents="strict" (XML Schema default) means that the railML schemas force all extensions to be defined by an XML Schema (*.xsd).

In case of general extensions this feedback should be provided to the railML community e.g. by announcing in the appropriate railML forum (link to the railML® website) or at minimum by mail to the appropriate railML coordinator (link to the railML® website).

Example for an extension XML Schema defining new attributes without any railML re-use

XML Schema with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema targetNamespace="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns:xs="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="1.0">

  <!-- Person to contact in case of any questions regarding the schema: Max Mustermann, phone: +12-345-67890, mail: max.mustermann@my-company.com -->

  <xs:attribute name="SAP-Number" type="xs:string">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide our internal SAP number</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:attribute name="variant" type="xs:integer">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide in incremental variant number</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:attribute name="colour" type="colourType">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide the colour of the model</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:simpleType name="colourType">
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:enumeration value="blue"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="red"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="yellow"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>

</xs:schema>
  • This example does not re-use railML types. It is fully based on XML Schema types. (lines 6, 12, 25)
  • The version attribute in the root element marks the version of the extension schema and should be not confused with the railML version. (line 2)
  • It is recommended to use the XML comments for non-content related documentation, e.g. contact information: <!-- ... --> (line 4)
  • It is recommended to use the XML Schema possibilities for
  • documentation inside the extension schema:
  • xs:annotation and xs:documentation (lines 7-9, 13-15, 19-21)
  • The type colourType shows how to define simple types that can be used for attributes: xs:simpleType (lines 24-30)

The following XML instance document shows an example how to deploy these extensions within a railML file.

XML Instance with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" 
        xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" 
        xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
        xsi:schemaLocation="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011 ../schema/railML.xsd https://www.my-company.com/my-department/ usingAnyAttribute.xsd" 
        version="2.1">
  <timetable id="tt1" my:SAP-Number="123-abc-456/XY" my:variant="-1">
    <categories>
      <category id="c1" code="IC" name="InterCity" description="Fast large city connection" trainUsage="passenger" my:colour="red"/>
      <category id="c2" code="RE" name="RegionalExpress" description="Fast small city connection" trainUsage="passenger"/>
    </categories>
  </timetable>
</railml>
  • The element timetable shows the usage of two extension attributes: SAP-Number, variant (line 3)
  • The first category element shows the usage of another extension attribute: colour (line 5)
  • The second category element shows the absence of the extension attributes. (line 6)
  • The extensions are clearly distinguishable from the railML core by defining the appropriate namespace: xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" (line 2), using the prefix my (lines 3, 5)

Generally, the prefix is a short abbreviation for the domain-specific extension up to three letters.

XML attributes generally occur in no-order. The extension attributes may be mixed with the railML attributes.

Example for an extension XML Schema defining new attributes with some railML re-use

XML Schema with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xs:schema targetNamespace="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" xmlns:rail="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" xmlns:xs="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="1.0">

  <!-- Person to contact in case of any questions regarding the schema: Max Mustermann, phone: +12-345-67890, mail: max.mustermann@my-company.com -->

  <xs:import namespace="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" schemaLocation="../schema/railML.xsd">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Copyright (c) railML.org; All Rights Reserved.</xs:documentation>
      <xs:documentation>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/</xs:documentation>
      <xs:documentation>For further information see: https://www.railml.org/</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:import>

  <xs:attribute name="SAP-Number" type="rail:tGenericName">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide our internal SAP number</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:attribute name="variant" type="rail:tPositiveCounter">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide in incremental variant number</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:attribute name="colour" type="colourType">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation>Provide the colour of the model</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:attribute>

  <xs:simpleType name="colourType">
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:enumeration value="blue"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="red"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="yellow"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>

</xs:schema>
  • The railML namespace has to be declared in any case where types are reused in the extension: xmlns:rail="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" (line 2)
  • The railML namespace has further to be imported using the XML Schema rules: xs:import (lines 6-12)
  • The attribute SAP-Number re-uses the railML type tGenericName. (line 14)
  • The attribute variant re-uses the railML type tPositiveCounter. (line 20)
  • This example has many in common with the previous one. See those comments, too.

The following XML instance document shows an example how to deploy these extensions within a railML file.

XML Instance with comments

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<railml xmlns="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011" 
        xmlns:my="https://www.my-company.com/my-department/" 
        xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
        xsi:schemaLocation="https://www.railml.org/schemas/2011 ../schema/railML.xsd https://www.my-company.com/my-department/ usingAnyAttributeWithRailML.xsd" 
        version="2.1">
  <timetable id="tt1" my:SAP-Number="123-abc-456/XY" my:variant="1">
    <categories>
      <category id="c1" code="IC" name="InterCity" description="Fast large city connection" trainUsage="passenger" my:colour="red"/>
      <category id="c2" code="RE" name="RegionalExpress" description="Fast small city connection" trainUsage="passenger"/>
    </categories>
  </timetable>
</railml>
  • The changed type of extension attribute SAP-Number in the element timetable has no influence into the XML Instance document. (line 3)
  • The changed type of extension attribute variant in the element timetable forces the value to be an non-negative integer. (line 3)
  • This example has many in common with the previous one. See those comments, too.

New enumeration value

  • In some places railML offers the posssibility to extend the enumeration list by self-defined values following some constraints. The railML type "tOtherEnumerationValue" is included in the pre-defined enumeration list for these cases.
  • Good news first: For this technique no XML schema defintion is needed.
  • The "new enumeration value" should start with the string other:. It should be followed by "word characters" without whitespaces, at minimum two.

example: <places count="10" category="other:foldingSeat"/>

definition of tOtherEnumerationValue
<xs:simpleType name="tOtherEnumerationValue">
  <xs:annotation>
    <xs:documentation>an arbitrary string starting with 'other:' followed by at minimum two characters, white space not allowed for extending railML enumeration lists</xs:documentation>
  </xs:annotation>
  <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
    <xs:pattern value="other:\w{2,}"/>
  </xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>