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Scheme description / Schemenbeschreibung

Position of trainProtectionChange in the XML-Tree / Position von trainProtectionChange im XML-Baum

Multiplicity / Anzahl


Semantics / Bedeutung

A <trainProtectionChange> can be set at the position of a track in which the train protection method changes. The direction to which the change is valid, protection medium and protection monitoring can be set.

Attributes of trainProtectionChange / Attribute von trainProtectionChange

  • id: XML-file-wide unique, machine-interpretable identity, required for later referencing that element internally. For a detailed explanation see Dev:identities.
    XML-Datei-weit eindeutige, maschineninterpretierbare Identität, die für die spätere interne Referenzierung dieses Elements erforderlich ist. Für eine detaillierte Erklärung siehe Dev:identities.
  • code (introduced with version 2.1): Machine-interpretable string (e.g. an abbreviation) used for identification of the object across exchange partners, usecase specific uniqueness constraints may apply. Please see our description of the differences between id, code and human-readable identifiers.
    Maschineninterpretierbare Zeichenkette (z.B. Abkürzung), die zur Identifizierung des Objekts auch bei Austauschpartnern verwendet wird, wobei spezifische Eindeutigkeitsbeschränkungen gelten können. Bitte beachten Sie unsere Erläuterung zu den Unterschieden zwischen id, code and menschenlesbaren Kennzeichnungen.
  • name: Established, human-readable short string, giving the object a name. Not intended for machine interpretation, please see our notice on human interpretable data fields.
    Etablierte, menschenlesbare kurze Zeichenkette, die das Objekt benennt. Nicht zur maschinellen Interpretation bestimmt, siehe Hinweise zu menschenlesbaren Datenfeldern.
  • description: Human-readable, more detailed description as addition to the name. It should give additional explanations or hints to the contents of this element. Not intended for machine interpretation, please see our notice on human interpretable data fields.
    Menschenlesbare, detailliertere Beschreibung als Ergänzung zu name. Sie soll zusätzliche Erläuterungen oder Hinweise auf den Inhalt dieses Elements geben. Nicht zur maschinellen Interpretation bestimmt, siehe Hinweise zu menschenlesbaren Datenfeldern.


  • xml:lang (introduced with version 2.1): This is a unique identifier of language. It uses basically the language standard IETF BCP 47 (external link) which may be different to ISO 639-1 (external link) or ISO 639-2 (external link). For mapping hints see relation to other standards (external link).
    This defines the language used for name and description. Use <additionalName> to provide a name and/or description in other languages.}
  • pos: This is the position on a track defined as distance from its start (trackBegin) regardless the "absolute mileage" in @absPos.
    Das ist die Position des Elements auf einem Track i.S. der realen Entfernung zum trackBegin. Sie ist damit unabhängig von der mit absPos modellierten Strecken-Kilometrierung.
🗒️ For an explanation of the differences between @pos and @absPos see <mileageChange>
  • absPos: This is the position on a track as absolute mileage/chainage.
    Das ist die Position des Elements im Referenzsystem der Strecken-Kilometrierung.
🗒️ For an explanation of the differences between @pos and @absPos see <mileageChange>
  • absPosOffset (deprecated with version 2.1): The semantics of this attribute aren't very clear. It seems to be redundant to the definitions with mileageChanges in "overlapping regions".
  • dir: This defines the validity of <trainProtectionChange> along the track. Possible values are:
  • up This denotes the direction from the <trackBegin> to the <trackEnd> (increasing relative position values).
  • down This goes opposite to up (decreasing relative position values).
  • medium: This specifies the medium used for communication between the train and linside equipment.
    Dies gibt den Übertragungsweg für die Informationen von der Strecke zum Fahrzeug an.
    Possible values are:
  • mechanical "mechanisch", z.B. Fahrsperren der Berliner S-Bahn As a means to reduce the consequence of a Signal Passed At Danger and to ensure that a train sufficiently comes to rest within an overlap, trainstops are implemented as mechanical devices colocated next to an end of authority that will activate a trip cock arm on a train causing an emergency brake intervention [1].
  • electric "elektrisch", z.B. Crocodile in Frankreich, Belgien und Luxemburg contains a pair of magnets, the first permanent, the second an electromagnet linked to the signal to provide an indication of the aspect. The ramp is placed between the rails so that a detector on the train can receive the indication data [2].
  • inductive "induktiv", z.B. Indusi der Deutschen Reichsbahn, PZB der Deutschen Bahn A type of train protection system that utilizes permanent magnets installed in the track. One example is the German Indusi (germ. Induktive Signalsicherung) that works on the same way by using tuned circuits trackside and on board. That close coupling between both circuits takes place only at discrete points, so the information is spot transmitted. They provide for an attentiveness check at the signals which can show „Caution“, trainstop functions and more or less complex supervision functions, but without calculating a dynamic speed profile [3].
  • magnetic "magnetisch", z.B. Integra-Signum der Schweizerischen Bundesbahn trackside magnets for automatic train protection [4].
  • optical "optisch" fibre optic cables, which are already installed in cable troughs alongside railway tracks, to monitor railway infrastructure conditions. The sensing technique, known as distributed acoustic/vibration sensing (DAS/DVS), relies on the effect of Rayleigh scattering and transforms the optical fibre into an array of “virtual microphones” in the thousands. This sensing method has the ability to be used over long distances and thus provide information about the events taking place in the proximity of the monitored asset in real-time [5].
  • radio "Funk", z.B. Funk-Fahr-Betrieb uses GSM digital radio with continuous connectivity [6]. In radio operation, the route and trains are secured and the elements of the route are controlled by radio. The special feature is that the route elements are controlled from the vehicle instead of from the operations center. [7].
  • rail "Schiene", z.B. Abgriff der in die Fahrschienen aufmodulierten Information, Führerstandssignalisierung der ehemaligen SZD-Bahnen It is Continuous Automatic Train Signalling (АЛСН - автоматическая локомотивная сигнализация непрерывного действия) used widely on the main lines of the ex-Soviet states. It uses modulated pulses inducted into rails similar to the Italian RS4 Codici and American Pulse Code Cab Signaling. On high-speed lines the variant ALS-EN (АЛС-ЕН) is used which takes advantage of a double phase difference modulation carrier frequency. Use of several distinct pulse train patterns of alternating current flowing through a track circuit to convey an aspect of the next signal. The circuit comprises the feedpoint at the next signal, one running rail, first locomotive axle, another running rail and back to the signal feedpoint. The resulting electromagnetic field is picked up by receiver coils located just front of the first axle of the locomotive. The signal is then amplified, filtered and evaluated [6].
  • cable "Kabel" With the line control continuous monitoring of the speed is possible. The vehicle data is transmitted from the vehicle device to the Linienzugbeeinflussung headquarters, where the target speed is determined, which in turn is then transmitted to the on-board unit via the line cable installed in the track. The vehicle is addressed via its position. The on-board device determines the driving data (e.g. actual, target, target speed, target distance), which is displayed in the driver's cab [7].
  • none It is used if there is no train protection.
  • monitoring: This specifies the way the train supervision works.
    Dies gibt die Art und Weise der Informationsübertragung von der Strecke zum Fahrzeug an.
    Possible values are:
  • intermittent "punktförmig", z.B. PZB der Deutschen Bahn the data is transmitted to the train at discrete points along the track. Data transmission points are provided at signals and sometimes at selected intermediate locations between signals [8]
  • continuous "linenförmig", z.B. LZB oder CIR-ELKE der Deutschen Bahn transmit control data continuously from track to train. This enables the ATP system not only to protect but also to guide the train [8].
  • none It is used if there is no train protection.

Syntactic Constraints / Syntaktische Beschränkungen

  • id: xs:ID, required
    a string, starting with a letter (a..zA..Z) or an underscore (_),
    followed by a non-colonized and non-spaced string consisting of letters, digits, points (.), dashes (-) or underscores (_)
  • code: xs:string, optional
  • name: xs:string, optional
  • description: xs:string, optional
  • xml:lang: xs:language, language identification, optional
  • pos: tLengthM (xs:decimal, 6 fraction digits, length value measured in meter); required; must be greater than or equal to zero, less than or equal to the track's length
  • absPos: tLengthM (xs:decimal, 6 fraction digits, length value measured in meter); optional
  • absPosOffset: xs:decimal, 6 fraction digits, length value measured in meter; optional
  • dir: xs:string, generic type for more constrained direction statements: enumeration up, down; derived from tLaxDirection; optional
  • medium: tTrainProtectionMonitoring (xs:string); optional
  • monitoring: tTrainProtectionMedium (xs:string); default: none; optional
  • trainProtectionSystem: xs:string; optional

Best practice & Examples / Empfohlene Anwendung & Beispiele

Not yet described. / Noch nicht beschrieben.

Notes / Anmerkungen

General information on positioning

Positive pos values describe the distance from the track's begin. The track length is derived from the pos value in <trackEnd>.

The absolute mileage refered to by absPos is usually found on technical drawings of the track layout or on mileage posts next to the track.

Open issues / Offene Punkte/Pendenzen

Not yet described. / Noch nicht beschrieben.